Teeth can develop staining relatively frequently and it can happen due to many different reasons. It has been reported that men have higher risk of tooth discolouration than women. The shade od the discoloured teeth can range from yellow to grey and can be divided into two types. Extrinsic (surface) stains are considered to be caused by certain drinks and foods, such as coffee, black tea, red wine and coke as well as tobacco, tooth cavities and exposure to the antibiotic tetracycline, especially during childhood. Internal stains are called intrinsic and are usually a result of older age, worn off enamel, exposure to fluoride and, as well as extrinsic stains, use of tetracycline very early in life. Extrinsic and intrinsic discolouration frequently appears together.
Diagnosing dental stains is straightforward and does not require any special tools. It can be done by a specialist in a regular dental examination. The treatment of intrinsic stains is usually more complicated than extrinsic stains. Extrinsic stains can be easily removed by the dentist performing a professional cleaning procedure or, in some cases, using some whitening gel. To prevent dental stain, chewing sugar free gum with a whitening effect, visiting the dentist regularly for examination and professional cleaning as well as regular flossing, brushing and rinsing is recommended.